References

  1. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Metabolic acidosis of CKD: an update. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016;67(2):307-317.
  2. Goraya N, Wesson DE. Overview of acid-base physiology. In: Wesson DE, ed. Metabolic Acidosis: A Guide to Clinical Assessment and Management. New York, NY: Springer Science; 2016:1-6.
  3. Scialla JJ, Anderson CAM. Dietary acid load: a novel nutritional target in chronic kidney disease? Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2013;20(2):141-149.
  4. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Retarding progression of chronic kidney disease: use of modalities that counter acid retention. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2018;27(2):94-101.
  5. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Blood tests. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/blood-tests. Accessed May 22, 2019.
  6. International Society of Nephrology. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3(1):1-150.
  7. Moranne O, Froissart M, Rossert J, et al. Timing of onset of CKD-related metabolic complications. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(1):164-171.
  8. Ryan TP, Sloand JA, Winters PC, Corsetti JP, Fisher SG. Chronic kidney disease prevalence and rate of diagnosis. Am J Med. 2007;120(11):981-986.
  9. Abramowitz MK, Melamed ML, Bauer C, Raff AC, Hostetter TH. Effects of oral sodium bicarbonate in patients with CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(5):714-720.
  10. de-Brito Ashurst I, O’Lone E, Kaushik T, McCafferty K, Yaqoob MM. Acidosis: progression of chronic kidney disease and quality of life. Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(6):873-879.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of CKD by CKD Stage and Year, 1988-1994 to 2015-2016. Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance System. https://nccd.cdc.gov/CKD/detail.aspx?Qnum=Q8#refreshPosition. Accessed July 18, 2019.
  12. Chen W, Abramowitz MK. Epidemiology of acid-base derangements in CKD. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2017;24(5):280-288.
  13. Chen W, Abramowitz MK. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63(2):311-317.
  14. Inker LA, Coresh J, Levey AS, Tonelli M, Muntner P. Estimated GFR, albuminuria, and complications of chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22(12):2322-2331.
  15. Szczech LA, Stewart RC, Su HL, et al. Primary care detection of chronic kidney diease in adults with type-2 diabetes: the ADD-CKD study (Awareness, Detection, and Drug Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease). Plos One. 2014;9(11):e110535.
  16. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(suppl 1):S1-S266.
  17. Bushinsky DA. Tolerance to sodium in patients with CKD-induced metabolic acidosis: does the accompanying anion matter? Am J Kidney Dis. 2019;73(6):858-865.
  18. National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for bone metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42(4)(suppl 3):S1-S201.
  19. Rajan VR, Mitch WE. Muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease: the role of the ubiquitin proteasome system and its clinical impact. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23(4):527-535.
  20. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Adverse effects of the metabolic acidosis of chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2017;24(5):289-297.
  21. Alpern RJ, Sakhaee K. The clinical spectrum of chronic metabolic acidosis: homeostatic mechanisms produce significant morbidity. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997;29(2):291-302.
  22. Abramowitz MK, Hostetter TH, Melamed ML. Association of serum bicarbonate levels with gait speed and quadriceps strength in older adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;58(1):29-38.
  23. Weiner DE, Seliger SL. Cognitive and physical function in chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2014;23(3)291-297.
  24. MacKinnon HJ, Wilkinson TJ, Clarke AL, et al. The association of physical function and physical activity with all-cause mortality and adverse clinical outcomes in nondialysis chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2018;9(11):209-226.
  25. de Brito-Ashurst I, Varagunam M, Raftery MJ, Yaqoob MM. Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20(9):2075-2084.
  26. Dubey AK, Sahoo J, Vairappan B, Haridasan S, Parameswaran S, Priyamvada PS. Correction of metabolic acidosis improves muscle mass and renal function in chronic kidney disease stages 3 and 4: a randomized controlled trial [published online ahead of print July 24, 2018]. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2018;1:1-9.
  27. Szeto CC, Wong TYH, Chow KM, Leung CB, Li PKT. Oral sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomized placebo-control trial. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(8):2119-2126.
  28. Stein A, Moorhouse J, Iles-Smith H, et al. Role of an improvement in acid-base status and nutrition in CAPD patients. Kidney Int. 1997;52(4):1089-1095.
  29. Domrongkitchaiporn S, Pongskul C, Sirikulchayanonta V, et al. Bone histology and bone mineral density after correction of acidosis in distal renal tubular acidosis. Kidney Int. 2002;62(6):2160-2166.
  30. McSherry E, Morris RC Jr. Attainment and maintenance of normal stature with alkali therapy in infants and children with classic renal tubular acidosis. J Clin Invest. 1997;61(2):509-527.
  31. Sebastian A, Harris ST, Ottaway JH, Todd KM, Morris RC Jr. Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. New Engl J Med. 1994;330(25):1776-1781.
  32. Jehle S, Zanetti A, Muser J, Hulter HN, Krapf R. Partial neutralization of the acidogenic Western diet with potassium citrate increases bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(11):3213-3222.
  33. Carrero JJ, Stenvinkel P, Cuppari L, et al. Etiology of the protein-energy wasting syndrome in chronic kidney disease: a consensus statement from the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM). J Renal Nutr. 2013;23(2):77-90.
  34. Löfberg E, Gutierrez A, Anderstam B, et al. Effect of bicarbonate on muscle protein in patients receiving hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;48(3):419-429.
  35. Ballmer PE, McNurlan MA, Hulter HN, Anderson SE, Garlick PJ, Krapf R. Chronic metabolic acidosis decreases albumin synthesis and induces negative nitrogen balance in humans. J Clin Invest. 1995;95(1):39-45.
  36. Reaich D, Channon SM, Scrimgeour, Daley SE, Wilkinson R, Goodship TH. Correction of acidosis in humans with CRF decreases protein degradation and amino acid oxidation. Am J Physiol. 1993;265(2 pt 1):E230-E235.
  37. Graham KA, Reaich D, Channon SM, et al. Correction of acidosis in CAPD decreases whole body protein degradation. Kidney Int. 1996;49(5):1396-1400.
  38. Graham KA, Hoenich NA, Tarbit M, Ward MK, Goodship TH. Correction of acidosis in hemodialysis patients increases the sensitivity of the parathyroid glands to calcium. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1997;8(4):627-631.
  39. Dobre M, Yang W, Chen J, et al. Association of serum bicarbonate with risk of renal and cardiovascular outcomes in CKD: a report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62(4):670-678.
  40. Tangri N, Stevens LA, Griffith J, et al. A predictive model for progression of chronic kidney disease to kidney failure. JAMA. 2011;305(15):1553-1559.
  41. Shah SN, Abramowitz M, Hostetter TH, Melamed ML. Serum bicarbonate levels and the progression of kidney disease: a cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(2):270-277.
  42. Raphael KL, Wei G, Baird BC, Greene T, Beddhu S. Higher serum bicarbonate levels within the normal range are associated with better survival and renal outcomes in African Americans. Kidney Int. 2011;79(3):356-362.
  43. Kovesdy CP, Anderson JE, Kalantar-Zadeh K. Association of serum bicarbonate levels with mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009;24(4):1232-1237.
  44. Navaneethan SD, Schold JD, Arrigain S, et al. Serum bicarbonate and mortality in stage 3 and stage 4 chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6(10):2395-2402.
  45. Phisitkul S, Khanna A, Simoni J, et al. Amelioration of metabolic acidosis in patients with low GFR reduced kidney endothelin production and kidney injury, and better preserved GFR. Kidney Int. 2010;77(7):617-623.
  46. Goraya N, Simoni J, Jo CH, Wesson DE. A comparison of treating metabolic acidosis in CKD stage 4 hypertensive kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or sodium bicarbonate. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8(3):371-381.
  47. Goraya N, Simoni J, Jo CH, Wesson DE. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate. Kidney Int. 2014;86(5):1031-1038.
  48. Mahajan A, Simoni J, Sheather SJ, Broglio KR, Rajab MH, Wesson DE. Daily oral sodium bicarbonate preserves glomerular filtration rate by slowing its decline in early hypertensive nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2010;78(3):303-309.
  49. Garneata L, Stancu A, Dragomir D, Stefan G, Mircescu G. Ketoanalogue-supplemented vegetarian very low-protein diet and CKD progression. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;27(7):2164-2176.